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School organization: References

Allen, L., and Steinberg, A. (2004). Big buildings, small schools: Using a small schools strategy for high school reform. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future.

Alspaugh, J. W. (1999). The interaction effect of transition grade to high school with gender and grade level upon dropout rates. (ED 431066). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, April 19-23, 1999.

Alspaugh, J. W. and Harting R. D. (1995). Transition effects of school grade-level organization on student achievement. Journal of Research and Development in Education. 28(3), 145-49.

American Institutes for Research and SRI International. (2007). Evaluation of the early college high school initiative: Select topics on implementation. Retrieved March 6, 2008, fromhttp://www.earlycolleges.org/publications.html#evaluations

Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., and Mac Iver, D. J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle-grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist 42(4), 223-235. Retrieved April 20, 2008, fromhttp://web.jhu.edu/CSOS/images/TDMG/PreventingStudentDisengagement.pdf

Bowen, G. L., Bowen, N. K., and Richman, J. M. (2000). School size and middle school students' perceptions of the school environment. Social Work in Education, 22(2), 69-82.

Clark, M., Hager, G., and Nikolova, N. (2006). School size and student outcomes in Kentucky’s public schools.Research Report No. 334. Frankfort, KY: Legislative Research Commission.

Chadwick, K., Hughes-Webb, G., O’Connor, C., Samanta, D., Howley, C., D’Brot, J., Hammer, P., and Hunter, A. (2008). The Early College High School (ECHS) Initiative in Ohio: 2007-2008 Evaluation Report. Charleston, WV: Edvantia.

Cohen, M. (2001). Transforming the American high school: New directions for state and local policy. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future.

Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance. School Improvement Research Series, Close-up #20. Retrieved March 9, 2008, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html

Crosnoe, R., Kirkpatrick, M., and Elder, G. (2004). School size and the interpersonal side of education: An examination of race/ ethnicity and organizational context. Social Science Quarterly, 85(5), 1259-1274.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2002). Redesigning schools: What matters and what works. School Redesign Network at Stanford University.

Foley, E. M., Klinge, A., and Reisner, E. R. (2007). Evaluation of New Century High Schools: Profile of an initiative to create and sustain small, successful high schools. Retrieved April 14, 2008, fromhttp://www.newvisions.org/schools/downloads/PSAfinal92707.pdf

Foreman-Peck, J. and Foreman-Peck, L. (2006). Should schools be smaller? The size-performance relationship for Welsh schools. Economics of Education Review, 25, 157-161.

Fouts, J. T., Baker, D. B., Brown, C. J. and Riley, S. C. (2006). Leading the conversion process: Lessons learned and recommendations for converting to small learning communities. Tucson, AZ: Fouts and Associates.

Franklin, B. J., and Glascock, C. H. (1998). The relationship between grade configuration and student performance in rural schools. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 14(3), 149-153.

Gammill, A. (2008, January 23). State's schools battle high dropout rates with new approaches. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://www.indystar.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2008801230486

Gewertz, C. (2007, August 23). Pittsburgh building ‘nation’ of 9th graders. Education Week. Retrieved March 7, 2008, from http://peterpappas.blogs.com/copy_paste/files/9grade-Nation.pdf

Goldberger, S., with Bayerl, K. (2008). Beating the odds: The real challenges behind the math achievement gap—and what high-achieving schools can teach us about how to close it. Retrieved April 4, 2008, fromhttp://www.jff.org

Greenway, R., and Vanourek, G. (2006). The virtual revolution: Understanding online schools. Education Next, 6(2). (EJ763322). Retrieved March 6, 2008, from www.eric.ed.gov

HeraldOnline. (2008, February 12). Grade 8.5 makes sense. Retrieved March 5, 2008, fromhttp://www.heraldonline.com/opinions/story/357707.html

Hughes, G., Copley, L, and Baker, A. (2005) Capital High Academy for Ninth Graders Exceeding Standards (CHANGES): Description and Evaluation of the 2004-2005 Implementation. Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) at Edvantia.

Husted, T. A., and Cavalluzzo, L. C. (2001). Background paper for New Collaborative Schools (NCS): An overview of at-risk high school students and education programs designed to meet their needs. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation.

Jimerson, L. (2006). The hobbit effect: Why small works in public schools. Rural Trust Policy Brief Series on Rural Education. Arlington, VA: The Rural School and Community Trust.

Jordan, W. J., Cavalluzzo, L., and Corallo, C. (2006). Community college and high school reform: Lessons from five case studies. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30, 729-749.

Kahne, J.E., Sporte, S. E., de la Torre, M., with Easton, J. Q. (2006). Small high schools on a larger scale: The first three years of the Chicago High School Redesign Initiative. Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago.

Kemple, J. J., Herlihy, C. M., and Smith, T. J. (2005). Making progress toward graduation: Evidence from the Talent Development High School model. Retrieved May 2, 2008, fromhttp://www.mdrc.org/publications/408/full.pdf

Lawrence, B. K., Bingler, S., Diamond, B. M., Hoffman, J. L., Howley, C. B., Mitchell, S., et al. (2002). Dollars and sense: The cost effectiveness of small schools. Cincinnati, OH: KnowledgeWorks Foundation.

Lay, J. C. (2007). Smaller isn’t always better: School size and school participation among young people. Social Science Quarterly, 88(3), 790-815.

Lee, V. E., and Burkam, D. T. (2001). Dropping out of high school: The role of school organization and structure.(ED 458694). Retrieved February 29, 2008, from www.eric.ed.gov

Lee, V. E., and Smith, J. B. (1997). High school size: What works best, and for whom? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(3), 205-227.

Lee, V., Smith, J., and Croninger, R. (1996). Understanding high school restructuring effects on the equitable distribution of learning in mathematics and science. Revised. (ED 397491). Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). Distance education courses for public elementary and secondary school students: 2002-03. Retrieved April 25, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/frss/publications/2005010/index.asp?sectionID=2

New York City Department of Education, Office of Multiple Pathways to Graduation. (2006). Multiple Pathways research and development: Summary findings and strategic solutions for overage, under-credited youth.Retrieved April 14, 2008, from http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices/OMPG/default.htm

Newman, B. M., Myers, M. C., Newman, P. R., Lohman, B. J. and Smith, V. L. (2000). The transition to high school for academically promising, urban, low-income African American youth. Adolescence, 35(137), 45-66.

Payne, A. (2008, January 21). 5 years for high school? It could happen. The Saginaw News. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://blog.mlive.com/saginawnews/2008/01/5_years_for_high_school_it_cou.html

Philadelphia Education Fund. (n.d.). Year three of the Talent Development High School initiative in Philadelphia: Results from five schools 2001-2001. Retrieved April 30, 2008, fromhttp://www.chccs.k12.nc.us/ISD/HighSchool9thGradetrans.pdf

Raywid, M. A. (1996). Taking stock: The movement to create mini-schools, schools-within-schools, and separate small schools. Urban Diversity Series No. 108. (ED 395045).
Madison, WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools.

Rice, K. L. (2006). A comprehensive look at distance education in the K-12 context. Journal of Research on Technology in Education 38(4), 425-448.

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). (2007). State virtual schools—Successes and growing pains: Summary of the 2007 report on state virtual schools. (ED498393). Retrieved March 6, 2008, fromwww.eric.ed.gov

Stevenson, K. R. (2006). School size and its relationship to student outcomes and school climate: A review and analysis of eight South Carolina state-wide studies. (ED495953). Retrieved April 11, 2008, fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov

The Urban Institute Education Policy Center. (2007). Baltimore City’s high school reform initiative: Schools, students, and outcomes. Washington, DC: Author.

Tucker, B. (2007). Laboratories of reform: Virtual high schools and innovation in public education. Retrieved April 22, 2005, from http://www.educationsector.org/research/research_show.htm?doc_id=502307

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (2007). What Works Clearinghouse topic report: Dropout prevention. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from

Weiss, C. C., and Bearman, P. S. (2007). Fresh starts: Reinvestigating the effects of the transition to high school on student outcomes. American Journal of Education, 113, 395-421.

Winchester, D. (2007, August 22). Grade 8.5 offers half a chance. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from http://www.sptimes.com/2007/08/22/Northpinellas/Grade_85_offers_half_.shtml

Verdugo, R. R., & Schneider, J. M. (1999). Quality schools, safe schools: A theoretical and empirical discussion. Education and Urban Society, 31(3), 286-307

Zvoch, K. (2006). Freshman year dropouts: Interactions between student and school characteristics and student dropout status. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 11(1), 97-117.

These references refer to a review conducted for the Center for Public Education by researchers at Edvantia, an education research and development not-for-profit corporation founded in 1966. The full review is located on a separate web page.

Posted: September 4, 2008

©Center for Public Education

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