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What research says about the value of homework: References

Balli, S. J. (1998). When mom and dad help: Student reflections on parent involvement with homework. Journal of Research and Development in Education31, 142-146.  

Balli, S. J., Wedman, J. F., & Demo, D. H. (1997). Family involvement with middle-grades homework: Effects of differential prompting. Journal of Experimental Education66, 31-48.

Bempechat, J. (2004). The motivational benefits of homework: a social-cognitive perspective. Theory into Practice43(3), 189-196.

Bryan, T., Nelson, C., & Mathru, S. (1995) Homework: A survey of primary students in regular, resource, and self-contained special education classrooms [Abstract]. Journal of Learning Disabilities27, 85-90.

Burstein, L. (1993). The IEA Study of Mathematics III: Student growth and classroom processes. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: A cross-cultural examination. Child Development60, 551-561.

Cooper, H. (1989a). Homework. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Cooper, H. (1989b). Synthesis of research on homework. Educational Leadership4, 85-91.

Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all—in moderation. Educational Leadership58, 34-38.

Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., & Nye, B. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology25, 464-487.

Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J, Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology,90(1), 70-83.

Cooper, H., & Nye, B. (1994). Homework for students with learning disabilities: The implications of research for policy and practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities27(8), 470-479.

Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research. Review of Educational Research76, 1-62.

Cooper, H., & Valentine, J. C. (2001). Using research to answer practical questions about homework.Educational Psychologists36, 143-153.

Corno, L., & Xu, J. (2004). Homework as the job of childhood. Theory into Practice43, 227-233.

Cosden, M., Morrison, G., Albanese, A. L., & Macias, S. (2001). When homework is not home work: After-school programs for homework assistance. Educational Psychologist36(3), 211-221.

Coutts, P. M. (2004). Meanings of homework and implications for practice. Theory Into Practice43, 182-188.

De Jong, R., Westerhof, K. J., & Creemers, B. P. M. (2000). Homework and student math achievement in junior high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation6(2), 130-157.

Dufresne, A., & Kobasigawa, A. (1989). Children's spontaneous allocation of study time: Differential and sufficient aspects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology47, 274-296.

Easton, J. Q., & Bennett, A. (1989). Homework in different types of schools. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, Calif., March 1989. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED308256.)

Epstein, J. L. (1988). Sample clinical summaries: Using surveys of teachers and parents to plan projects to improve parent involvement (Parent Involvement Series, Report P-83). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools.

Epstein, J. L. & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: teachers' roles in designing homework.Educational Psychologist36(3), 181-193.

Foyle, H. C. (1985). The effects of preparation and practice homework on student achievement in tenth-grade American history. Ph.D. dissertation, Kansas State University, 1985. Dissertation Abstracts International45, 8A.

Fuchs, Thomas and Woessmann, Ludger. What Accounts for International Differences in Student Performance? A Re-examination using PISA Data. Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, March 24, 2004

Garson, G. D. (2006). Statnotes: Topics in multivariate analyses. Retrieved November 30, 2006, from www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/statnote.htm.

Gill, B., & Schlossman, S. (1996). A sin against childhood: Progressive education and the crusade to abolish homework, 1897-1941. American Journal of Education105, 27-66.

Gill, B. P., & Schlossman, S. L. (2004). Villain or savior? The American discourse on homework, 1850-2003.Theory Into Practice43, 174-181.

Hagan, H. (1927). The value of homework as compared with supervised study. Second Yearbook, Chicago Principal's Club, 147-149.

Hoover-Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M. & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist36, 195-209.

James-Burdumy, S., Dynarski, M., Moore, M., Deke, J., Mansfield, W., Pistorino, C. & Warner, E. (2005). When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education/Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance.

Johnson, J. K., & Pontius, A. (1989). Homework: A survey of teacher beliefs and practices. Research in Education41, 71-78.

Keith, T. Z. (1982). Time spent on homework and high school grades: A large-sample path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology74, 248-253.

Keith, T. Z., & Benson, M. J. (1992). Effects of manipulable influences on high school grades across five ethnic groups. Journal of Educational Research86, 85-93.

Keith, T. Z., Diamond-Hallam, C., & Fine, J. G. (2004). Longitudinal effects of in-school and out-of-school homework on high school grades. School Psychology Quarterly19(3), 187-211.

Kohn, A. (2006, September). Abusing research: The study of homework and other examples. Phi Delta Kappan, 8-22.

Kralovec, E., & Buell, J. (2001, April). End homework now. Educational Leadership58, 39-42.

Leone, C. M., & Richards, M. H. (1989). Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence18, 531-548.

Mikk, J. (2006, May) Students homework and TIMSS 2003 mathematics results. Paper presented at the International Conference "Teaching Mathematics: Retrospective and Perspectives," Tartu, Estonia.

Muhlenbruck, L., Cooper, H., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. J. (2000). Homework and achievement: Explaining the different strengths of relation at the elementary and secondary school levels. Social Psychology of Education3, 295-317.

Murphy, J. & Decker, K. (1989). Teachers' use of homework in high schools. Journal of Educational Research,82(5), 261-269.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Pursuing excellence: Comparison of international 8th grade mathematics and science achievement from a U.S. perspective, 1995 and 1999. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/20011028.pdf.

Nash, J. B. (1930, May 31). What price home study? The School Parent9, 6-12.

Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development, Learning for Tomorrow's World—First Results from PISA, 2003, Paris. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/1/60/34002216.pdf

Paschal, R. A., Weinstein, T,. & Walberg, H. J. (1984). The effects of homework on learning: A quantitative synthesis. Journal of Educational Research78, 97-104.

Philips, M. (1997). What makes schools effective? A comparison of the relationships of communitarian climate and academic climate to mathematics achievement and attendance during middle school. American Educational Research Journal4, 633-662.

Rosenberg, M. S. (1989). The effects of daily homework assignments on the acquisition of basic skills by students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities22, 314-323.

Rutter, M., Maughan, B., Mortimore, P., & Ouston, J. (1979). Fifteen thousand hours. Secondary schools and their effects on children. London: Open Books.

Strauss, V. (2006, September 12). As homework grows, so do arguments against it. Washington Post, p. A04.

Swank, A. L. G. (1999, July). The effect of weekly math homework on fourth grade student math performance. Johnson Bible College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED433234.)

Townsend, S. (1995). The effects of vocabulary homework on third grade achievement. Union, N.J.: Kean College of New Jersey. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED379643.)

Trautwein, U., & Koller, O. (2003). The relationship between homework and achievement—still much of a mystery.Educational Psychology Review15, 115-145.

Truesdell, L. A., & Abramson, T. (1992). Academic behavior and grades of mainstreamed students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children58, 392-398.

Van Voorhis, F. L. (2003). Interactive homework in middle school: Effects on family involvements and science achievement. Journal of Educational Research96(6), 323-338.

Warton, P. M. (2001). The forgotten voice in homework: Views of students. Educational Psychologist36, 155-165.

Weiss, L. B. (2005). Little homework, yet reaping A's. School Library Journal15. Retrieved October 10, 2006, from http://www.slj.com. June 2005, p. 16.

Walberg, H. J., Paschal, R. A., & Weinstein T. (1985). Homework's powerful effects on learning. Educational Leadership42, 76-79.

Xu, J., & Corno, L. (1998). Case studies of families doing third-grade homework. Teachers College Record,100(2), 402-436.


The homework review was produced by researchers at Edvantia for the Center for Public Education. Edvantia, formerly the Appalachia Educational Laboratory, is an education research and development not-for-profit corporation founded in 1966.

Posted: February 5, 2007

©2007 Center for Public Education
Home > Instruction > Homework > What research says about the value of homework: References

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