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The proficiency debate: References

Allen, J. and Sconing, J. (2005). Using ACT Assessments Scores to Set Benchmarks for College Readiness. ACT, Inc. Retrieved on April 9, 2008, from http://www.act.org/research/researchers/reports/pdf/ACT_RR2005-3.pdf

Barth, P. (2006). Score Wars: Comparing the National Assessment of Educational Progress with state assessments. Center for Public Education.

Bourque, M. L. and Byrd, S. (2000). Student Performance Standards on the National Assessment of Educational Progress: Affirmation and Improvements.
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Brennan, R. L. (1998). Misconception at the Interaction of Measurement Theory and Practice. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice (Spring): 17(1).

Dillon, S. (2005). Students Ace State Tests, But Earn D's from U.S. New York Times, 26 November, final edition.
Retrieved on May 6, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/26/education/26tests.html?_r=1&pagewanted=2&oref=slogin

Dodd, C. and Ehlers, V. (2007). The Dodds/Ehler's Standards to Provide Educational Achievement for All Kids (Speak) Act. New American Foundation. Retrieved on May 6, 2008, from http://www.newamerica.net/files/070108ed_event_summary.pdf

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. (2007). Standards and Assessments Peer Review Guidance: Information and Examples for Meeting Requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. U.S Department of Education. Retrieved on April 9, 2008, from http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/saaprguidance.pdf

Forsyth, R. A. (1998). NAEP Frameworks and Achievement Levels. Proceedings of the Achievement Levels Workshop. National Assessment Governing Board.
Retrieved on January 24, 2008, from http://www.nagb.org/pubs/conf_proc.pdf

Grigg, W., Lauko, M., and Brockway, D. (2006). The Nation's Report Card: Science 2005. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved on April 24, 2008, fromhttp://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main2005/2006466.pdf

Hall, D. and Kennedy, S. (2006). Primary progress, secondary challenge: A state by state look at student achievement patterns. Education Trust. Retrieved on April 24, 2008, from http://www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/15B22876-20C8-47B8-9AF4-FAB148A225AC/0/PPSCreport.pdf

Hambleton, R. K., Brennan, R. L., Brown, W., Dodd, B., et al. (Summer 2000). A Response to "Setting Reasonable and Useful Performance Standards." Grading the Nation's Report Card. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. National Academy of Sciences: 19(2).

Hunter, B. (2007). What Are Achievement Levels, and Why Are Policy Makers So Concerned About Them?Retrieved on November 26, 2007, from http://www.aasa.org/publications/LeadersEdgeArticle.cfm?ItemNumber=8633

Kiplinger, V. L. and Linn, R. L. (1993). Raising the Stakes of Test Administration: The Impact on Student Performance on NAEP. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Retrieved on January 22, 2008, from http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/Reports/TECH360.pdf

Linn, R. L. (January 1998). Validating Inferences From National Assessment of Educational Progress Achievement-Level Reporting. Applied Measurement in Education11(1)

Linn, R. L. (2001). The Influence of External Evaluations on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. CRESST. Retrieved on January 23, 2008, from http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/Reports/TR548.pdf

Loomis, S. C. and Bourque, M. L. (Eds.). National Assessment of Educational Progress Achievement Levels, 1992–1998 for Reading. Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board, 2001. Retrieved on November 8, 2007, from http://www.nagb.org/pubs/readingbook.pdf

Mosquin, P. and Chromy, J. (2004). Federal Sample Sizes for Confirmation of State Test in the No Child Left Behind Act. NAEP Validity Studies Panel. Retrieved on April 9, 2008, from http://www.air.org/publications/documents/MosquinChromy_AIR1.pdf

National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB). (2002). Framework Development Policy Statement. National Assessment Governing Board. Retrieved on April 10, 2008, from http://www.nagb.org/release/framework_policy.doc

NAGB. (2005). NAEP: Measuring Student Progress Since 1964. Retrieved on May 21, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/about/naephistory.asp

NAGB. (2006). Mathematics Framework for the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved on November 8, 2007, from http://www.nagb.org/frameworks/math_07.pdf

NAGB. (2008a). NAEP Assessment Frameworks. Retrieved on April 10, 2008, from www.nagb.org

NAGB (2008b). Personal email communication. May 21, 2008.

National Center for Educational Statistics. (2007). Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales (NCES 2007-482).
U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved on December 20, 2007, from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2007482.pdf

O'Neil, H. F. (1992). Experimental Studies on Motivation and NAEP Test Performance: Final Report. CRESST. Retrieved on May 6, 2008, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/e8/1c.pdf

Pellegrino, J. (March 2007). Should NAEP Performance Standards Be Used for Setting Standards for State Assessments? Phi Delta Kappan88(7)

Pellegrino, J. W., Jones, L. R., and Mitchell, K. J. (1999). Grading the Nation's Report Card: Evaluating NAEP and Transforming the Assessment of Educational Progress.
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Peterson, P. E. and Hess, F. M. (2006). Keeping an Eye on State Standards? A race to bottom? Education Next. Retrieved on April 24, 2008, from http://media.hoover.org/documents/ednext20063_28.pdf

Phillips, G. W. (2007). Linking NAEP Achievement Levels to TIMSS. American Institutes for Research. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, from http://www.air.org/news/documents/naep-timss.pdf

Reckace, M. D. (2001). Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2001. The Controversy over the National Assessment Governing Board Standards. Brookings Institute, Brown Center on Education Policy.

Reckase, M. D. Converting boundaries between National Assessment Governing Board performance pategories to points on the National Assessment of Educational Progress Score Scale: The 1996 science NAEP process.Applied Measurement in Education11(1).

Scott, L. A., Ingels, S. J., and Owings, J. A. (2007). Interpreting 12th-graders' NAEP-scaled mathematics performance and postsecondary outcomes from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) (NCES 2007-328). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved on October 17, 2007, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007328.pdf

Stoneberg, B. D. (2007a). An explanation for the large differences between state and NAEP "proficiency" scores reported for reading 2005. National Conference on Large-Scale Assessment, Nashville, Tn. Retrieved on May 9, 2008, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/2b/61/f5.pdf

Stoneberg, B. D. (May 2007). Using NAEP to confirm state test results in the No Chld Left Behind Act. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation12(5) . Retrieved on May 6, 2008, from http://pareonline.net/pdf/v12n5.pdf

Thompson, T. G. and Barnes, R. E. (2007). Beyond NCLB: Fullfilling the promise of our nation's children. High Standards for Every Student in Every State. Commission on No Child Left Behind. Retrieved on May 7, 2008, from http://www.aspeninstitute.org/atf/cf/%7BDEB6F227-659B-4EC8-8F84-8DF23CA704F5%7D/NCLB_Section5.pdf

Timms, M., Schneider, S., Lee, C., and Rolfhus, E. (2007a). Aligning science assessment standards: Louisiana and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Southwest Educational Laboratory at Edvanced Research, Inc. Retrieved on April 9, 2008, from http://www.edvanceresearch.com/rel_products.php

Timms, M., Schneider, S., Lee, C., and Rolfhus, E. (2007b). Aligning science assessment standards: Texas and the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Southwest Educational Laboratory at Edvanced Research, Inc. Retrieved on April 9, 2008, from http://www.edvanceresearch.com/rel_products.php

Workforce, I. f. a. C. (2007). Leaders and laggards: A state-by-state report card on educational effectiveness. U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved on April 24, 2008, from http://www.uschamber.com/icw/reportcard/default#top

Yeager, M. (2007). Understanding NAEPInside the nation's education report card. Retrieved on November 5, 2007, from http://www.educationsector.org/usr_doc/EXPNAEP.pdf


This guide was written by Jim Hull, Policy Analyst, Center for Public Education


Special thanks to Susan Loomis, Assistant Director for Psychometrics, National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB); Ray Fields, Assistant Director for Policy and Research, NAGB; and Donald Rock, Educational Researcher, ETS for their insightful feedback and suggestions. However, the opinions and any errors found within the paper are solely those of the author.


Posted: June 17, 2008


© 2008 Center for Public Education
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